Tobacco Production and Protection In Ukraine, the tobacco is grown mainly in the Crimea and the southern and western areas: Ternopil, Khmelnytsky, Transcarpathian, Ivano-Frankivsk. Yields of dry leaves up to 16-17 kg / ha, velikolistyanih grades - up to 25 kg / ha. It depends on soil fertility, varietal characteristics and growing technology. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., family Solanaceae) - it is a culture that contains and stores one of the most potent alkaloids - nicotine. Three known types of tobacco: the eastern cigarette, cigar and cigarette velikolistyany. Green leaves are also raw materials for dietary protein and of inflorescences produce an essential oil for fragrance. Oxidizing nicotine with chromic acid, nicotinic acid obtained for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Nicotine is a raw material for the manufacture of insecticides, and many chemicals. Tobacco cultivation is divided into two periods. The first - growing seedlings in greenhouses and hothouses. This period is 40-50 days before the 5.6-leaf. Keep in mind that tobacco seeds germinate at a temperature of 10 ... 12 ° C, optimal for plant growth temperature is 25 ... 30 ° C, and at minus 2 ° C, it dies. Second period - from transplanting to the field before the technological maturity of the leaves of the upper tier. Depending on climatic conditions and variety, this period is 80-120 days. Tobacco - the culture of thermophilic, drought resistant, can not withstand freezing temperatures, so the seedlings are planted in the field only after threat of frost has passed. Seedlings are grown in greenhouses and hothouses, warm beds and cold - to the insurance fund. With warm beds 1m2 receive up to two thousand plants from the cold - 1-1.5 thousand, and 1m2 with a greenhouse - to 3 thousand plants. Care of seedlings includes: regular watering, aeration, fertilizing plants. In autumn conduct napivparovy tillage: stubble to a depth of 8-10 cm with simultaneous harrowing, 20-30 days - plowing. In the spring of recommended early harrowing and cultivation. For 20-30 days before transplanting is desirable to spring plowing plowed fields to a depth of 12-15 cm Poor soils require making complex fertilizers. Seedlings are planted in late April, when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm is at least 10 ... 12 ° C. The width between the rows - 60 cm distance between plants - 18-20, for grades velikolistyanih - 25-30 inches. Seedlings of tobacco in greenhouses and open field damage knot nematodes, snails, rodents, larvae dovgonizhky, Medvedkov, tobacco thrips, peach aphid. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marioni) penetrates the roots and forms galls. As a result, plants are being depleted and growth patterns, especially in the dry season. Falls in greenhouses with soil, planting material and equipment. Medvedka (Gryllotalpa grullotalpa), moving in the surface layer of soil, turns on the surface of tobacco seeds were sown and after germination gnaws the roots of the seedlings. Larvae dovgonizhky pest (Tipula paludosa) feed underground and aboveground parts of the stem, roots, cuttings of the foundation, causing the death of seedlings. Peach aphid (Myzodes persicae) and tobacco thrips (Trips tabaci) damage seedlings and adult plants, which consequently are depleted, and the leaves turn yellow and die. In addition, feeding juice of plants, they are dangerous vectors of pathogens of viral diseases - Sucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus. Thrips overwinter on perennial weeds and leaves from wintering areas in April, when average daily air temperature of 15 ... 20 ° C. The tobacco thrips developing on seedlings and adult plants in the fourth and fifth generations. The peak of the highest numbers of the pest in July. Seedlings of tobacco in the field affects the complex polyphagous pests. In the forest-steppe cause significant damage to the larvae of click beetles, darkling beetles, harmful dovgonizhky, plastinchastovusih beetles, caterpillars podgryzayuschih scoop. Particularly harmful larvae of click beetles of genus Agriotes, because they gnaw the stems below the soil level. The larva gnaws a hole in the Kovalik aerial part of the stem, penetrates and eats away the heart. As the number of larvae 10 specimens. per m2 are completely eliminate tobacco plantations. In the Steppes of leaves and stems of tobacco damage the beetles, darkling beetles: sand, small and corn midlyaky - as well as beetles, weevils: black sugar, southern gray and black. The most common and dangerous pest of tobacco, which grow in large quantities stebluvannya phase, budding and blossoming, - sucking phytophagous: the tobacco thrips, peach and melon aphids. They damage plants and inhibit the development adversely affect the quality of the leaves. The leaves and generative organs of tobacco caterpillar damage hlopchatnikovye, tobacco and sage scoop, gamma, karadriny, cabbage and alfalfa scoop, and webworm. In general, tobacco is harmful entomofauna distributed as follows: orthopterans - 20%, Homoptera - 3, Hemiptera - 3, thrips - 1, beetles - 38, Hymenoptera - 4 moths - 30, Diptera - 1%. On tobacco plants reported 44 diseases are most prevalent and nayshkodochinnishimy are blackleg, black root rot, downy mildew, Bronzing tomatoes, tobacco, and cucumber mosaic, bacterial Riabukha like. The causative agent blackleg - Pythium debarinum, or Rhizoctonia solani - causes that the foundation of much thinner stems and turn black, and in the area of ​​the root collar is formed waist. Plants infected with the pathogen die, even if they are transplanted from the greenhouse to the open ground. The causative agent of black root rot - Thielaviopsis basicola - infects tobacco plants during all phases of vegetation and are nayshkodochinnishoyu disease in the seedling period. Infected leaves of young plants first turn white or yellow, then curl, dry up, and shoots die. Roots turn black, and the heavy defeat of dying. Dry root rot - Olpidium radicis - affects young plants, while the leaves wither, the roots become thin and shrink. Plants die, causing a significant liquefaction plants in greenhouses. Downy Mildew, the causative agent - Peronospora tabacina. Symptoms appear on leaves as gray-purple plaque or chlorotic spots. Affected leaves rapidly lose turgor, wither and rot. In addition to leaf shape, often a diffuse lesion of the plant, which leads to their death. The causative agent is stored as mycelium in plant tissues. Oospores agent is concentrated in the soil, plant debris and seeds. During epiphytoties yield is reduced by 70 percent. Powdery mildew (agent - Erysiphe cichoracearum) affects the leaves from the lower layer, gradually catching leaves the middle and upper tiers. First, on the upper side of the sheet there are small patches covered with white powder coating. Subsequently, the spots grow rapidly and can cover the entire surface of the sheet. The affected leaves turn brown, wither and break quickly. Place a reservation agent are weeds. The disease significantly reduces the grade of tobacco. Alternaria is manifested in the second half of summer. The intensive development of the disease is observed in rainy weather. Pathogen - fungus Alternaria tenuis. Symptom is the appearance on the leaves of large round brown spots with a velvety touch. The disease is worse quality of tobacco leaves. The causative agent of bacterial wildfire is the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, affecting tobacco plants throughout the growing season. Symptoms appear on leaves, at least - on stalks, flowers and seed pods in the form of moist, dark green or light green with dark spots or white seedlings in the middle, rounded brown spots on mature plants. Common in moist areas. The source of infection is neperegnili affected residues. Bronzing tomato pathogen is a virus Tomato spotled wilt virus. The symptoms are varied. They are united in two forms: dwarfism of tobacco (in the early stages of plant development) - as a consequence of slower growth - and leaf blotch (phase budding and flowering). In this case, the tops of the leaves become lighter, the plates formed reticular pattern chlorotic spots with necrotic along the veins. Carrier of the virus are the tobacco thrips, which infects them only in the larval stage. Virus (Potato virus) is transmitted juice, with vaccination, and peach aphids. Symptoms: the leaves first appear necrotic grid, then chlorotic spots that become necrotic, resulting in the leaves, a large number of small white spots. Cucumber mosaic pathogen - Sucumber mosaic virus - appears as a mosaic of leaves: dark green areas are placed between the veins. Often there is clarification of the veins, swelling, necrotic spots, deformed buds. Vectors are peach aphid. The tobacco mosaic agent - Tabacco mosaic virus - appears as a mosaic: duty light green spots of irregular shape with a normally colored areas. On young leaves appear lightening veins and blotches, and on adult plants - necrotic spots. The source of infection are crop residues, fallen leaves, aphids. Of viral diseases are quite common white spotting and mosaic ring, manifested in the form of small necrotic spots of light of different shapes. Source - infected seed crops of potatoes, aphids. Vovchok (Orobanche romosa) - year-old floral parasite with a light stem, leaves in the form of flakes without chlorophyll. Parasitic plant attached to the tobacco plant and inhibits its growth and development, greatly reducing performance. Host plant often dies. Organizational and economic and agricultural activities of tobacco growing Return to the tobacco crop rotation on the same field should be no earlier than five years. It is not necessary to grow tobacco on the field after the crops that are common pests and diseases (Solanaceae, melons, sunflowers, corn). The best precursor for tobacco are perennial grasses, winter cereals and legumes. Be sure to take into account the demands of tobacco to nutrients. Application rates of NPK fertilizers depend on soil fertility. Looking for varieties resistant to diseases and pests. The most common varieties of tobacco: 14 Ternopil, Ternopil 7, American 307, 211 Doina like. Seeds should be collected from healthy plants with no signs of disease. Before sowing seeds in hotbeds and greenhouses to insure against root-knot nematodes and other soil pests, soil must disinfect by steam at a temperature of 100 ° C at a depth of 25-30 cm (exposure - at least three hours) or promorozit winter. If necessary to carry out chemical disinfection of the soil. We must adhere to the spatial isolation of greenhouses and polytunnels (not less than 1 km) from the field with solanaceous crops, peach and apricot orchards, tobacco warehouses and drying facilities. The internal construction of greenhouses and polytunnels, as well as inventory is recommended to process 20% solution of 40% formalin at a rate of a fluid l/m2, then cover them with plastic wrap (exposure - four or five days). Five days before sowing the seeds need to etch the 0.2% formalin solution (20 ml formalin in 1 liter of water). 1 kg of seeds - 2 liter of solution. Exposure during the soaking of seeds - from 10 to 15 minutes, then it should be rinsed with water and dry in the shade. Must adhere to the recommended optimum seeding rate (0.3 g/m2). To prevent the development of diseases, it is necessary to adhere to the optimal density of seedlings and the regime of humidity and temperature. In the case of the onset of symptoms peronosporosis, root rot, bacterial wildfire and other diseases of tobacco seedlings need to sprinkle a suspension of 0.3% polikarbatsin (80% sd) rate of fluid flow - 0.2-0.5 l/m2. At the first signs of rot should be treated plants 0.2% suspension fundazol, ZP (1 l/m2). At the first sign of disease or treatment polikarbatsin fundazol repeat (frequency - seven to ten days). Care of seedlings: loosening the soil, moderate watering, aeration and fertilization (the rate of: 5 m2 - 10 l of a solution containing 30-40 g of superphosphate, 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate, 15-20 g of potassium salts). Before transplanting seedlings into open ground, with a high number of soil-borne pests (larvae of click beetles, dovgonizhky larvae plastinchastovusih, darkling, Medvedkov podgryzayuschie scoops), the roots of seedlings to soak in 0.2% solution of insecticide Akhtar 25WG, VG (Thiamethoxam, 250 g / kg), the exposure - 90-120 minutes at 18 ... 23 ° C or in the area under tobacco as bait sow oats, seeds are processed Prometheus 400, 40% m.k.s. (25 l / m) with a flow rate of 40-50 kg / ha. Culture-bait before transplanting seedlings destroyed by cultivation. Against tobacco thrips is recommended for three days before transplanting process it 0.1-0.15% solution of insecticide Bi-58 new, KE (Dimethoate, 400 g / l), the rate of flow of the working solution - 1l/m2. Against annual grasses and dicotyledonous weed seedlings before transplanting the soil should be processed gravel herbicide with immediate wrapping or its simultaneous cultivation. It is recommended to apply Treflan 480, KE or Triflureks 480, KE, (trifluralin, 480 g / l), flow rate - 2.0-4.0 l / ha, as well as Dual Gold 960 EC, KE (S-metolachlor, 960 g / l), the rate of consumption - 1.3-1.6 l / ha, or Stomp, KE (330 g / l), flow rate - 6.0 l / ha Nortron, 50% of the ob (4,0-8,0 l / ha). Effective against leaf-eating moths agromeram and webworm is obsivannya planting tobacco crop-bait - corn. Sow it in early June that the phase of milky ripeness coincided with a massive second-generation egg laying moths. Then mow corn for silage. During the growing season when the first manifestations of the pathogen peronosporosis and other diseases need to be processed tobacco fungicides: Reid MC Gold 68WG, VG (Metalaxyl M, 40 g / kg + mankotseb, 640 g / kg), polikarbatsin, 80% sp (1,6-3,3 kg / ha) or fundazol, ZP (Benomyl, 500 g / kg). The first treatment should be carried out 10-12 days after transplanting, the next - in cases of fungal pathogens of the first symptoms of disease and bacterial spot, especially under favorable weather for disease conditions. It is recommended that no more than three treatments, and no later than 14 days before harvest of tobacco. Top should be applied against MG-sodium, 60% of the item (5-6 kg / ha) not later than 20 days before harvest. Effective biological method is to use against the top of the parasite - fitomizy flies. After seven to ten days after transplanting in the presence of three to five to ten plants of thrips and other pests to insecticide-treated plantations: Bi-58 new, KE 0.8-1.0 l / ha, Zolon, KE (1.6-2.0 l / ha). In the case of growth of phytophagous, particularly aphids (populated by more than 10% of plants), thrips (5-7 ind. At 10 plants) and against caterpillars and leaf-eating webworm moths (8-9 ind. Butterflies in pheromone traps for 1 week) tobacco plants to be processed Sumitionom, KE (Fenitrothion, 50%), consumption rate - 1.0-1.4 l / ha, and zolonom, KE, or Bi-58 new, KE Spraying against pests and diseases to combine, using tank mixture of drugs. 20 days before harvest chemical treatments is not recommended. When the leaves of culture will be collected, the stems need to grind and the Priory, to reduce the supply of infected thrips and diseases.

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